Posts Tagged ‘Bitwise Operation’

ConcurrentHashMap is hash table supporting full concurrency of retrievals and adjustable expected concurrency for updates. I recently came across this code during testing, and one part really got my attention. To generate the hash, ConcurrentHashMap uses an algorithm based on bitshifting and bitwise operations.

Variant of single-word Wang/Jenkins hash
private static int hash(int h) {

// Spread bits to regularize both segment and index locations,
// using variant of single-word Wang/Jenkins hash.
h += (h <<  15) ^ 0xffffcd7d;
h ^= (h >>> 10);
h += (h <<   3);
h ^= (h >>>  6);
h += (h <<   2) + (h << 14);

return h ^ (h >>> 16);

According to the comment in the code, this method applies a supplemental hash function to a given hashCode, which defends against poor quality hash functions.

Good hash functions are important as a hash table effectively turns from a map to a linked list, in the worst case, all keys in the same bucket. There are also other considerations that come into play such as the performance of hash calculation and the number of buckets. Dr. Heinz M. Kabutz explains the power of “power-of-two number of buckets” which gives us some good starting point to understand what is really going on here.

Let’s look at the code above and see how things change, line-by-line. To make things simple, I use int 1 to perform all the operations.

In Java, the int data type is a 32-bit signed two’s complement integer. To represent int 1 in binary code, we have the following:

h=1 > 0000-0000-0000-0000-0000-0000-0001

Now, let’s dissect the following line:

h += (h << 15) ^ 0xffffcd7d

First, let's re-write this into an easier-to-read format.. at least for me :).

h1 = h << 15      =  0000-0000-0000-0000-1000-0000-0000-0000
hex = 0xffffcd7d  =  1111-1111-1111-1111-1100-1101-0111-1101
h2 = h1 ^ hex     =  1111-1111-1111-1111-0100-1101-0111-1101
h2 + h            =  1111-1111-1111-1111-0100-1101-0111-1110

Using the same thought processing and applying it to each line, we end-up with:

h += (h << 15) ^ 0xffffcd7d = 1111-1111-1111-1111-0100-1101-0111-1110
h ^= (h >>> 10)	            = 1111-1111-1100-0000-1011-0010-1010-1101
h += (h << 3)		    = 1111-1101-1100-0110-0100-1000-0001-0101
h ^= (h >>> 6)              = 1111-1110-0011-0001-0101-0001-0011-0101
h += (h << 2) + (h << 14)   = 0100-1011-0100-0011-1101-0110-0000-1001
h ^= (h >>> 16)             = 0100-1011-0100-0011-1001-1101-0100-1010

Bin = 0100-1011-0100-0011-1001-1101-0100-1010
Decimal = 1,262,722,378


A bitwise AND takes two binary representations of equal length and performs the logical AND operation on each pair of corresponding bits. In each pair, the result is 1 if the first bit is 1 AND the second bit is 1. Otherwise, the result is 0. For example:

AND 0011
= 0001


A bitwise exclusive or takes two bit patterns of equal length and performs the logical XOR operation on each pair of corresponding bits. The result in each position is 1 if the two bits are different, and 0 if they are the same. For example:

XOR 0011
= 0110

In Java, all integer types are signed, and the “<<” and “>>” operators perform arithmetic shifts. Java adds the operator “>>>” to perform logical right shifts, but since the logical and arithmetic left-shift operations are identical, there is no “<<<” operator in Java. These general rules are affected in several ways by the default type promotions; for example, since the eight-bit type byte is promoted to int in shift-expressions,[2] the expression “b >>> 2” effectively performs an arithmetic shift of the byte value b instead of a logical shift. Such effects can be mitigated by judicious use of casts or bitmasks; for example, “(b & 0xFF) >>> 2” effectively results in a logical shift.